actical Data Link (TDL) is a communication system that utilizes aparticular message format and a common protocol to transmit data viawireless channels in an instant, automatic, and secure way [1]. It has theadvantages of high throughput and low latency, and it aims to reduce thetime of the Observing, Orientating, Deciding, and Acting (OODA) loop sothat the reaction time of military units is greatly shortened. Nowadays,TDL usually adopts a distributed architecture rather than a point-to-pointor centralized architecture to achieve and ensure high anti-corruptioncapability. In summary, TDL is significant in terms of military capacityimprovement and thus has attracted considerable attention in thefield ofmilitary communications [2,3].Motivations and challenges:Despite the advantages of TDL, it stillfaces a severe problem, i.e., automatic and adaptive cooperation amongmultiple militarily domains without sufficient trust, especially in inter-military-domain scenarios. In modern battlefields, it is unavoidablethat combat units from different military domains cooperate with eachother. A battlefield event usually requires the cooperative reaction ofcombat units in multiple military domains. For example, in many situa-tions, there are several combat groups on the same battlefield. They needto work together to destroy adversary targets and reach a combat goal. Inorder to achieve this purpose, it is necessary for them to shareinformation continually. Besides, they have to reach a consensus on somedecisions based on shared information and data; otherwise, the ill-advised decision made based on unsynchronized information couldcause cooperation failure. Therefore, it is essential to provide a datatransmission control mechanism that manages the data transmissionamong different combat domains and supports such crucial features asdata consistency, decision automation, and action adaptivity. AlthoughTDL supports communications between different military units, it lacksan autonomous and adaptive data transmission control scheme and isunable to control theflow and sharing of data uniformly and reliably,which is a basic requirement for cross-military cooperation in multiplefields.However, it is challenging to control data transmission in inter-domain cooperation in a reliable way. Past work about trust manage-ment cannot solve this issue [4–8]. First, current TDLs cannot guaranteedata consistency among different domains. Second, the modern militaryrequires high autonomy, and the military information and messagesshould be transmitted automatically rather than artificially in order toreduce transmission delay. Third, the data transmission in TDL is dy-namic, and the data should be transmitted to different nodes based on thestatus of a battlefield. However, these issues have rarely been explored.The emergence of the blockchain provides an effective tool to achieveautomatic data transmission in TDL. The blockchain, which wasfirstly* Corresponding author.E-mail Feng), Li), Yang), Yan), Chen).Contents lists available atScienceDirectDigital Communications and Networksjournal 1 October 2019; Received in revised form 22 May 2020; Accepted 25 May 2020Available online 27 June 20202352-8648/©2020 Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications. Publishing Services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co. Ltd. This is anopen access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Communications and Networks 7 (2021) 285–294